Types of Paralysis
: Spinal Cord Injury Definitions
Spinal Cord Injury Definitions
Anterior Cord Syndrome
Incomplete spinal cord lesion with primary damage in anterior cord;
loss of motor function, sense of pain and temperature; perseveration of
proprioception, kinesthesia, and vibration below level of lesion.
Autonomic Dysreflexia (or Hyperreflexia)
A pathologic autonomic reflex seen in patients with high-level spinal
cord injuries. it is precipitated by a noxious stimulus below the level
of the lesion and produces an acute onset of autonomic activity. It is
considered an emergency situation; symptoms include hypertension, bradycardia,
headache, and sweating.
Pulling of tearing of a piece of bone away from the main bone.
Incomplete spinal cord lesion caused by hemisection of the cord; loss
of motor function, proprioception, and kinestheia on side of lesion; loss
of sense of pain and temperature on opposite side.
Bulbocavernous Reflex (Positive)
Pressure on the glans penis or glans clitoris elicits a contraction
of the external anal sphincter.
Burst (Explosion) Fracture
A comminuted vertebral fracture associated with pressure along the
long axis of the vertebral column; also associated with flexion injuries;
bone fragments are displaced centripetally.
Cauda Equina Lesion
Damage to the peripheral nerve roots below the first lumbar vertebra;
some regeneration is possible.
Central Cord Syndrome
Incomplete spinal cord lesion producing greater neurologic involvement
in upper extremities (cervical tracts more centrally located) than in
the lower extremities (lumbar and sacral tracts more peripheral).
Complete Lesion (SCI)
No sensory or motor function below the level of lesion.
A vertebral fracture resulting from pressure along the long axis of
the vertebral column; closely associated with flexion injuries.
Damage to the spinal cord produced by pressure from displaced bone
and/or soft tissues or swelling within the spinal canal.
Technique for emptying urine from a flaccid bladder; pressure is placed
between the umbilicus and sympysis pubis in an upward and downward direction.
Displacement of a bone or vertebral body from its normal position.
Bizarre, painful sensations experienced below the level of lesion
following spinal cord injury; often described as burning, numbness, pins
and needles, or tingling sensations.
Heterotopic Bone Formation
Abnormal bone growth in soft tissues; a potential secondary complication
following spinal cord injury; occurs below the level of the lesion. SYN:
Incomplete Lesion (SCI)
Some preservation of sensory or motor function below the level of
Central (within the spinal canal) chemical injection that interrupts
the reflex arc; used to decrease severe spasticity.
Softening of a solid by exposure to water or other fluid; usually
pertains to the skin.
Voiding of urine. SYN: urination.
Severence of nerve fibers of the spinal cord; used to reduce severe
Surgical sectioning or release of a muscle; used to reduce spasticity.
Partial or total excision or resection of a nerve; used to reduce
Excessive urination during the night.
Decreased density or softening of bone.
Refers to partial or complete paralysis of all or part of the trunk
and both lower extremities from lesions of the thoracic or lumbar spinal
cord or sacral roots.
Peripheral Nerve Block
Local chemical injection (e.g., phenol) used to block transmission
of a motor nerve selectively; used to decrease spasticity.
Posterior Cord Syndrome
A rare incomplete lesion with primary damage to the posterior cord;
preservation of motor function, sense of pain and light touch with loss
of proprioception and epicritic sensations below the level of lesion.
A decrease in blood pressure that occurs when moving toward an upright
posture. This occurs normally but may be severe following prolonged bedrest.
Ulceration of soft tissue caused by unrelieved pressure and shearing
forces. SYN: decubitus ulcer, bed sore.
Partial or complete paralysis of all four extremities and trunk, including
the respiratory muscles from lesions of the cervical cord.
Division or severance of a nerve root; used to reduce severe spasticity.
Preservation of peripheral nerve roots at the level of a spinal cord
Incomplete lesion in which some sacral innervation remains intact;
complete loss of motor function and sensation in other areas below the
level of lesion.
Application of a horizontal or parallel force relative to adjacent
structures; opposite to force which is normally present; associated with
fracture dislocations of the thoracolumbar region.
Period immediately following injury to the spinal cord; characterized
by absence of all reflex activity, flaccidity, and loss of sensation below
the level of the lesion; generally subsides within 24 hours.
Incomplete or partial dislocation.
Bursting type of fracture of cervical region; produces a characteristic
anterior-inferior bone chip; fragment resembles a "teardrop"
on x-ray film; associated with flexion and compression forces.
Surgical section of a nerve; used to reduce spasticity.
Types of Paralysis : Spinal
Cord Injury Definitions